The marijuana industry is growing, and there’s no denying cannabis accounting is becoming increasingly important. The space is booming as more laws pass and new companies sprout up every day. It looks like the space will only continue to improve, too!
But the cannabis industry comes with its own unique set of challenges that you would never encounter in other industries.
In this article, we cover some of the most common, unique cannabis accounting challenges that make hiring an accountant specializing in cannabis essential.
Unique Cannabis Industry Challenges to Consider
State Law vs. Federal Law
While legal at the state level, the U.S. federal government still prohibits cannabis – and most related operations – from conducting business. This means cannabis businesses that choose to accept credit cards for payments, open bank accounts, get loans, or other financial transactions from the federal government can still be at risk of prosecution by the feds.
In fact, there are cases of banks shutting down cannabis business bank accounts – and dispensaries getting their payment processors shut down without warning – even in states where both medical cannabis and recreational marijuana are allowed.
Because of this issue, many small businesses operating in marijuana either don’t get set up with a traditional merchant account or get one but deposit and withdraw cash to/from each sale using a “cash-only” policy to keep it entirely off the books.
In some cases, other cannacompanies will actually decide not to take all forms of payment because they run the legal risk of confiscation by federal agents.
Cannabis business owners have trouble scaling as they are ultimately forced to operate in cash-only transactions. They also must account for their earnings in a whole different manner than traditional businesses. This results in a need for expert guidance from marijuana accounting professionals.
Furthermore, this means that cannabusiness operators cannot claim their income on tax returns, which can be problematic given the high taxes associated with legal sales of marijuana (even at state levels solely). The money that would be saved through tax returns could be allocated towards scaling, but without this option, cannabis business operators must either find a workaround or take the loss in stride.
Because cannabis is federally illegal, operators can’t claim it as an expense either. This creates another set of problems, especially when cannabis companies want to reinvest their profits. In many cases, they have no legitimate way to write off or reduce the cost of purchasing some equipment that might run into thousands or even millions of dollars.
Opening a Business Banking Account
Opening a business banking account for a cannabis company is another challenge that cannabis businesses interested in scaling face – especially at the federal level.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) recently announced they’d be making an exception for banks that want to provide banking services to cannabis companies. Michigan supports banking for cannabis, too. But it’s not a full-on guarantee like their other guidelines for banks.
The FDIC encourages banks and credit unions to consider “cannabis activity” when deciding whether or not to open an account with a marijuana business – however, this is only advisory, as FDIC guidelines are merely suggestions rather than hard rules.
Regardless of such, advisory firms can point you in the right direction to open an account. And cannabis banking is crucial to scale your operation.
Learn more about banking strategies for cannabis now.
This kind of uncertainty makes it challenging for cannabis entrepreneurs looking to accept tax payments or write-offs from the IRS as legitimate businesses operating within state laws. This difficulty encourages more self-employment taxes for the cannabis industry, along with other complications – which again makes hiring cannabis accounting professionals essential for scaling.
Not All Expenses/Adjustments are Tax-Deductible
Marijuana-related expenses in the United States aren’t always deductible as business expenses. And most marijuana businesses can deduct only cost of goods sold (COGS) – not operating expenses.
This means that ancillary business activities like marketing are off-limits for tax deduction purposes, and they don’t even qualify for an ordinary deduction. Accounting and tax services are complicated for this sector for this reason, among others.
To make matters worse, COGS is generally calculated by subtracting beginning inventory from total inventory at the end of a business’s fiscal year; this could cause some cannabis companies to pay higher taxes than non-cannabis companies (as COGS isn’t always the full accounting value).
Cannabis businesses have limitations regarding how they can lessen their tax obligations, even for ordinary business expenses. This is why it’s essential to work with an expert specializing in tax planning for the marijuana industry.
Our cannabis clients receive fractional financial accounting services, including tax preparation, with specialization in the cannabis space.
Whether handling the cannabis plant or offering ancillary services to the cannabis industry, many cannabis businesses save tax dollars with proper accounting expertise leading the way.
High Margins and Low Favorable Accounting Standards
Because marijuana businesses are federally illegal, cannabis companies’ financial statements may be governed by U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) rather than IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards).
Compared to IFRS, GAAP standards allow for wider leeway in how costs can be calculated – which could make it more difficult for cannabis companies to have lower tax liabilities or favorable tax deductions.
Federal rules against selling cannabis cause this emerging industry to be characterized by high margins and low favorable accounting standards. This is troublesome for businesses interested in scaling.
Until federal legalization happens and the Controlled Substances Act no longer impacts cannabis tax administration, a cannabis accountant will remain essential to ensure cash management bypasses common accounting issues plaguing the industry. Whether you owe back taxes, need someone to handle your excise taxes, or want someone who understands the tax code in relation to the marijuana industry, these financial services offer a full spectrum of benefits to business operators in this space.
In-House vs. Outsourcing Cannabis Accounting & Bookkeeping Services
Cannabis accounting is a relatively new territory, especially as we’ve seen changes within state laws over time, along with the federal government’s recent announcement regarding banking regulations and their oversight of cannabis businesses.
The market for marijuana accounting is still young, but as more cannabis companies grow and expand (and need to comply with tax laws), the need for marijuana accountants has increased substantially in recent years.
Outsourcing Cannabis Accounting & Bookkeeping: The Right Choice
Cannabis businesses can benefit from hiring in-house cannabis accountants and bookkeepers. However, there are several potential drawbacks to hiring in-house accounting personnel, as well.
Hiring in-house is more costly, which is a step backward as you’re scaling your operation. While you have a professional down the hall, the additional expense of paying for a cannabis accounting professional could take away from your overall profits. And let’s not forget that with a fractional CFO, you’ll use the services as much or little as needed, further decreasing the cost.
Because managing accounting operations in-house requires more administrative and financial personnel, this could potentially limit your business’s ability to expand and hire new employees.
While hiring an in-house expert will cost you more at the outset, it’s important to consider the long-term costs of keeping cannabis accountants on staff. In contrast, a cannabis tax advisor or firm can help your company meet its legal requirements while also allowing you to avoid penalties down the road.
Should I outsource my CFO service? This could be a good idea.
Learn more about the benefits of outsourcing cannabis accounting and tax specialists now.
Cannabis Tax Laws & Audits
One of the biggest challenges that cannabis entrepreneurs face is handling tax payments and writing off business expenses – especially when it comes to filing returns with state governments. These taxes range from corporate income taxes to sales taxes based on gross revenue – which can be tricky given how much money cannabis companies have been bringing in as a result of legalization efforts.
In California, where recreational marijuana was legalized via Proposition 64, there’s a 15% excise tax on all non-medical marijuana sales, and this marijuana sales tax is applied at the point of sale when cannabis products are delivered to a customer.
The state also charges cannabis companies per ounce for cultivation taxes, which must be paid in full before the end of each fiscal quarter (and if you’re late paying it off by even one day, there’s a penalty fee that adds on top of that).
An in-depth audit can reveal problems, and without the right internal controls in place, these problems can compound during an inspection. To keep your business on track to scale, a CPA firm will ensure you’re always audit-ready, ensuring your business continues operating and earning.
Inventory & Manufacturing vs. Retail Storefronts
Although both types of businesses have inventory and manufacturing costs associated with their respective services/products, retail storefronts involve much simpler accounting practices when it comes to selling goods directly to customers.
Since retail storefronts don’t manufacture or produce their own product(s), they aren’t required to track as much inventory. While tracking is still essential, these business operators can calculate the money they’ve received from customers and determine their revenue in conjunction with cannabis tax laws.
In contrast, manufacturing businesses have to account for cannabis stock on hand (which will decrease over time until it’s sold), as well as plant-growing costs associated with growing marijuana plants for sale – which must be accounted for when calculating sales taxes.
Put simply, cannabis businesses engaged in retail storefronts have an easier accounting process than those that manufacture/produce cannabis products. But tracking everything is still crucial for those operating in this space.
We recommend going beyond the minimum in accordance with cannabis compliance. Track everything and have your documentation in order in case of an audit. This is how you will ensure your business can continue scaling without accounting and tax-related troubles on the horizon.
Cannabis Accounting Software
As more states legalize recreational marijuana use and we observe changes made to federal drug policies along the way, cannabis dispensaries have had to ramp up their financial operations and ensure their work is compliant with state regulations. Internal controls, including but not limited to accounting software, are essential.
While the software does not replace a CPA firm, it can work in conjunction with one. For our clients, we usually recommend using spreadsheets to track the business’s financials and a licensed CPA specializing in cannabis operations overseeing them.
At this point, none of the software available is robust enough to fully manage the financials of businesses operating in the cannabis industry. Thus, we cannot recommend software unless it’s required by your state. For example, METRC.
However, having a fractional licensed CPA working on your business and controlling its cash flow is irreplaceable. While software can help with tracking seed-to-sale, business owners need a cannabis accountant to ensure the financial aspects of the business are conducted in a federally legal manner.
Besides the more in-depth knowledge of local laws and advisory services offered, a cannabis accountant or CPA firm offers insight into cost accounting. The software does not handle cost accounting for controlled substances as effectively, nor does it provide consulting services in conjunction with the tax services many cannabis businesses need to scale.
Protecting Finances & Inventory
Any cannabis accountant worth their weight in gold will advise you to protect your finances and inventory. The cannabis industry attracts people interested in taking advantage of the cash these businesses have on hand.
Thus, one of the first steps we recommend taking as a business operator in this industry is to ensure your highly regulated products and cash is protected.
Internal revenue can easily be taken by staff if you don’t have cannabis SOPs in place to safeguard your investment. Compliance demands of regulating authorities also require these controlled substances are locked away from potential thieves.
While those operating in the cannabis space can’t always deduct ordinary business expenses, it’s also challenging to make deductions based on stolen cash and product. With this in mind, many businesses in this industry already understand the need for protection that goes beyond the compliance demands of this budding industry.
Minimally speaking, if you sell cannabis in one form or another, you should have cannabis SOPs in place to ensure you have a log of everyone with access to your product and cash. This way, in case of a problem resulting in an audit, you know who to look at when it comes time to determine the criminal’s name.
Concluding on Marijuana Accounting to Scale
Cannabis is an evolving, premature space. But as it matures, we can expect more businesses to focus on scaling their operations.
The advice in this article will make tax planning and scaling for your business easier. Whether you’re in the beginning stages of your company’s operations or already conducting millions of dollars per year in business, the right cannabis accountant or CPA firm will ensure your business is on track for successful scaling.
Looking for cannabis accountant and CPA services to scale your operation? Contact us now to have our experts join your team!